Datapoint Khmer / Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns

Language:Khmer
Feature:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns by Johannes Helmbrecht
Value:Pronouns avoided for politeness

Examples

Sentence 4064:

kɔ̀ət

2nd sg. fam.

- used among friends; seems to derive from a 3rd person form (for equals)

bɔ:η

2nd sg. fam.

- used among brothers and sisters; wife to husband,

and husbands to wife; among friendly groups of people

of approximately the same age

khlu:ən

2nd sg. fam.

- used among friends to express familiarity

lò:k

2nd sg. hon.

- used to address formally, or politely superiors (office,

excellency, strangers); used between equal males, who

speak formally together; woman may use lò:k-srɤy;

- translated as 'Mr. ..'

lò:k-pù:

2nd sg. hon.

- very formal and polite; used by children to adult

visitors, or by young men and women to address older

people

mì:η

2nd sg. fam.

- used in addressing one's relatives or servants older

than oneself, or persons with whom one may have a

slightly familiar relationship established by the

situation;

- in the family, pu: refers to younger brother

and sister of either parent; 'om is used to refer to the

elder brother or sister of either parent

nɛ̀ək

2nd sg. hon.

- used among women friends; used to address boys

(age of 13-20) politely; used among friends of both

sexes;

- this form is characterized as familiar and polite at the

same time

nɛ̀ək

2nd sg. intim.

nì:əη

2nd sg. infer.

- woman servants of 8-20 years of age are addressed

by nì:əη, from 20-30 years of age, they are addressed

by nɛ̀ək; polite address for young women, children

pù:

2nd sg. fam.

- used in addressing one's relatives or servants older

than oneself, or persons with whom one may have a

slightly familiar relationship established by the

situation; in the family, pù: refers to younger brother

and sister of either parent; 'om elder brother or sister

of either parent

ʔaeη

2nd sg. infer.

- used to address children, younger persons (child/

adult), and equal age; used to express familiarity;

- used also as emphatic particle; according to ), this is a real personal pronoun such as ʔaη (1st sg infer), khɲom (1st sg equal), yɤ̀:η (1st pl infer), vì:ə (3rd infer), kɔ̀ət/ kə̀: (3rd equal)

References