Datapoint Korean / Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns

Language:Korean
Feature:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns by Johannes Helmbrecht
Value:Pronouns avoided for politeness

Examples

Sentence 2699:

caki

2nd sg. intim.

- this form is described as a 2nd sg intimate form of

address; etymologically caki is a so-called Sino-

Korean word (loan from Chinese); it is composed of ca

'self' + ki 'animate body'

caki-tul

2nd pl. intim.

- /-tul/ is the regular form of pluralization

caney

2nd sg. infer.

- used by a superiour to a much younger adult or

adolecent inferior, or by a parent-in-law to a son-in-

law

caney-tul

2nd sg. infer.

- pluralization is possible only with -tul, -huy is not

allowed

elusin

2nd sg. hon.

- rarely used 2nd sg deferential form of address;

- elusin refers exclusively to a respected male of over

sixty years of age; as a result, reference terms such as

apeci (Father), sensayng-nim (teacher), and sacang-

nim (company president) are used as pronominal

substitutes

elusin-tul

2nd pl. hon.

ku tay

2nd sg.

- this form is obsolete; 2nd sg blunt form of address

kutay-tul

2nd pl.

ne

2nd sg.

- this form is a 2nd sg plain form with a neutral

reference;

- it is used to address a child or equivalent (e.g. one's

own child or grandchild)

ne-huy(-tul)

2nd pl.

tangsin

2nd sg. infer.

- this form is a blunt form of 2nd sg address meaning

'you, himself';

- it is used to refer to an adult inferiour, e.g. by a boss

to his subordinate, except between husband and wife, in which case this form carries an affectionate connotation;

- it does not seem to be pejorative!;

- as a reflexive pronoun, tangsin is used only for adult social superiors

tangsin-tul

2nd pl.

tayk

2nd sg.

- used to an adult stranger, cannot be used to a social

superior

tayk-tul

2nd pl.

References