Datapoint Urdu / Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns

Feature:Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns by Johannes Helmbrecht
Value:Multiple politeness distinctions



2nd sg. hon.

- it is used when addressing one or more persons of higherstatus, persons to whom respect is due, or family members elderthan oneself

- it is also used by young persons to elderly persons (of allsocio-economic ranks), and by parents to children, to teach themgood manners

- finally, persons of equal status generally address each otheras āp in formal social situations, such as an office or a formalevent


2nd pl. hon.

2nd sg. intim.

- it is used only when addressing a small child in one's ownfamily, one's beloved, God, as an insult, or as a reproof to aservant or subordinate

- it occurs commonly in poetry (where according to convention,the poet addresses his beloved)


2nd pl.

- used when addressing one or more persons of lower status,children, or close family members

younger than oneself

- Persons of equal status may address each other as tumin informal social situations

- when addressing small children in another person's family, oneshould use tum, not tu


2nd sg.